This is part one in my series on Generative Classes.
A Python Generative Class is defined as
a class that returns or clones, i.e. generates, itself when accessed by certain means
This type of class can be used to implement method chaining or to mutate an object's state without modifying the original class instance.
An example of a generative class would be one that supports method chaining:
class Operation(object): def __init__(self, result=0): self.result = result def add(self, term): self.result += term return self def subtract(self, term): self.result -= term return self operator = Operation() operator.add(3).add(4).subtract(5) assert operator.result == 2
One potential issue with this approach (returning self after each method call) is that the original Operation instance is modified each time the generative methods are called. Sometimes it's more desirable to prevent the original object from being modified so that it can be reused in its original state and to prevent unintended side effects.
For example, this would not work as intended:
from5 = Operation(5) add7_to_5 = from5.add(7).result assert add7_to_5 == 12 add3_to_5 = from5.add(3).result # This fails! The result is actually 15. assert add3_to_5 == 8
A more robust implementation would be to clone the original class instance when certain methods are accessed and return the new instance whose state is mutated by whatever operation is being performed:
class Operation(object): def __init__(self, result=0): self.result = result def add(self, term): return self.__class__(self.result + term) def subtract(self, term): return self.__class__(self.result - term) operator = Operation() result = operator.add(3).add(4).subtract(5).result assert result == 2 assert operator.result == 0 from5 = Operation(5) add7_to_5 = from5.add(7).result assert add7_to_5 == 12 add3_to_5 = from5.add(3).result # This now passes! assert add3_to_5 == 8
However, this implementation contains some boilerplate (e.g. return self.__class__(...)) which could become tedious to work with at scale. There's also the fact that the class has to be manually generated with the proper arguments which means if the __init__ signature is changed, all of these references will have to be updated to match. This Stackoverflow answer from Martijn Pieters details a useful, generic implementation for creating generative classes:
from functools import wraps class GenerativeBase(object): def _generate(self): s = self.__class__.__new__(self.__class__) s.__dict__ = self.__dict__.copy() return s def _generative(func): @wraps(func) def decorator(self, *args, **kw): self = self._generate() func(self, *args, **kw) return self return decorator
NOTE: The code above is not exactly what appears in the Stackoverflow link. There was a typo that was corrected and posted to Pastebin.
The main part of the GenerativeBase is the _generate method. It's main purpose is to create a new instance of the class and copy its __dict__ state. When self.__class__.__new__(self.__class__) is called, it's equivalent to doing:
obj_to_clone = GenerativeBase() new_obj = GenerativeBase.__new__(GenerativeBase) new_obj.__dict__ = obj_to_clone.__dict__.copy()
It's worth noting that by using __new__, the __init__ method of the class will not be called. Because of this the generate function doesn't need to know how to initialize the new class instance; it just has to copy its state over (i.e. by copying __dict__).
There are some gotchas to this approach that are related to __dict__.copy(). The __dict__ object is the class' namespace and will typically contain all of the state that needs to be copied over. However, there may be instances where this isn't the case and some data will be lost in translation. Another issue is that __dict__.copy() performs a shallow-copy. If there are complex objects (e.g. a nested dict) stored in __dict__, the generated class instance will end up sharing state with it's parent which could lead to some hard to find bugs. You can read more about Python's data model on Python.org.
With that in mind, the original Operation class can be rewritten to utilize GenerativeBase:
class Operation(GenerativeBase): def __init__(self, result=0): self.result = result @_generative def add(self, term): self.result += term @_generative def subtract(self, term): self.result -= term
This new implementation is much cleaner and avoids excessive boilerplate. It abstracts the generative handling into a decorator which allows one to define the generative methods without having to worry about the details of the generative implementation. However, it is prone to the gotchas mentioned above, but in most cases, it would be sufficient for implementing a generative class.
Generative Classes Series
- Part one: Introduction to Generative Classes in Python
- Part two: Lazy Method Chaining in Python
- Part three: Late Value Passing for Lazy Method Chaining in Python
- Part four: Reinitializing Chained Method Values in Python